Supine Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is usually reserved for the treatment of larger stones in the kidney or upper ureter. It involves being admitted to the hospital for 2-3 days. Under a general anaesthetic a small incision is made in the skin and the kidney punctured using a fine needle. This tract is then dilated and a plastic tube inserted into the kidney through which a telescope can be passed. The stone is then identified and either removed whole or broken into small pieces. After the operation it is usual to be left with a small tube coming from the kidney for several days. Complications include: failure to access the kidney, bleeding and damage to surrounding organs.